Battery Definition; The battery in electricity and electrochemistry of any class of devices directly converts the energy of chemicals into electrical energy. A battery is a group of one or more cells whose chemical reactions produce a flow of electrons in a circuit.
Although the term “battery” in the strict sense of the word denotes an assembly of two or more voltaic cells capable of such energy conversion, it is usually applied to one cell of this type. While all batteries are made up of three main components, One anode (negative side – ), a second cathode (positive side +), and the third type of electrolyte a substance that chemically reacts with the anode and cathode.
High Power Density
The battery pack is designed to deliver sufficient power under heavy usage. The main focus is placed on high-energy-density, smaller size, and low cost. However, all three attributes are inimical to one another and often result in compromise. Battery life may be extended to a certain extent but the increased weight and bulk results in a weaker battery.
The best of the lot would be the lithium-ion, which is capable of delivering high performance, is lightweight, and has a long life. However, the best of the lot would be the lithium-polymer battery, which is capable of delivering high performance, is lightweight, and has a longer life than any other type of battery.
Good Thermal Conductivity
All electronic devices are dependent on batteries for their functioning and thermal conductivity is crucial in enabling them to function efficiently. Lithium-ion-based batteries have better thermal conductivity than others and this factor makes them ideal for devices that need constant charging and discharging.
Polymer-based devices, though costlier than the lithium-ion types, can do equally well in heavy-duty usage. Thus, one has a choice between the two.
some new batteries include high energy densities and shorter cycle times. These are ideal for devices that need a continuous charge and display high-temperature operation. This is however not the case with all types of electronic devices.
A battery having high energy density may well need a long cycle time to achieve the required state of charge, while a short-lasting battery may not be practical for some applications due to its short life. Thus, these types of batteries fall under this category.
Types Of Rechargeable Batteries
Lithium-ion-Polymer (Li-P polymer)
The lithium-polymer battery includes a mixture of lithium and graphite. They can be used for all kinds of electronic devices but are quite costly in comparison to the other varieties. As a result, their popularity has decreased significantly over time.
There are some exceptions, for instance, the lithium-ion polymer battery known as the deep cycle kind. This is the best suited for photocell applications where the life of the battery is directly proportionate to its ‘time’ in the circuit.
Nickel battery: The NiCad (Nimh) battery is relatively new in the market and features a high power density. Due to its special property is known as the self-discharge. It allows discharged cells to resume their original conduction level after a period of rest. It is however important to note that it has a limited capacity even after a good number of recharges, as it slowly loses its capacity.
Like the NiCad the Li-ion offers special characteristics associated with its self-discharge mechanism. Unlike the NiCad, the LiIon is not susceptible to self-discharge. This makes it the best suited for use in automotive applications where high power density is a requirement. In contrast to the NiCad, its ability to self-discharge also depends on the frequency of charging and discharging.
Nickel-Metal Hydride (NiMH)
The NiMH is a unique type of battery that incorporates both positive and negative charge protocols. Because of its chemical makeup, it can withstand extremely high temperatures, which makes it a good choice for high-temperature operation.
However, it has a limited shelf life and has low-temperature capacity. The NiMH battery is susceptible to memory loss after charging, which is why care should be taken when handling it. Its conduction ability is limited to a certain temperature range only and is prone to self-discharge once the temperature rises to its maximum limit.