# Electrical Circuits

The Electrical circuit is a closed-loop containing a source of electrical energy (for example, a battery) and a load (for example, a light bulb). Each circuit must have some load. The load must use all electrical energy in the circuit. A no-load circuit is called a short circuit. In the event of a short circuit, the power source supplies all its energy through the wires and back to itself. And either the wires melt (if you’re lucky), or the battery explodes, or something else catastrophic happens.

Electrical circuits have a closed-loop or path that forms a network of electrical components through which electrons can flow. This path is made using electrical wires and is powered by a source, such as a battery.

The beginning of the point where the electrons begin to flow is called the source. While the point at which the electrons leave the circuit is called the return.

The point at which these electrons enter the electrical circuit is called the “source” of electrons. The point at which the electrons leave the circuit is called “reverse” or “grounding.” The exit point is called a “return” because the electrons are always at the source when they complete the electrical circuit path.

The electrical circuit that lies between the starting point of the electrons and the point they return to the source is called the “load” of the electrical circuit. The electrical circuit load can be as simple as the load on electrical appliances, such as refrigerators, televisions, or lamps, or more complex, such as the load on the output of a hydroelectric power station.

## How Electrical Circuits Work

An electrical circuit is a path or line along which an electric current flows. The path can be closely connected at both ends, making it a loop. A closed-circuit makes it possible for electrical current to flow. It can also be an open circuit in which the electron flow breaks off due to a path’s rupture.

Circuits use two power supply forms( 1) alternating current (alternating current) and Second Direct current (direct current). AC often powers large appliances and motors and is generated by power plants. Direct current feeds battery vehicles and other cars and electronics.

Although an electrical circuit is a continuous path through which electric current exists and can flow. A simple electrical circuit consists of a power source, two conductive wires (each end of each of which is attached to each terminal of the cell), and a small lamp to which the free ends of the wires leading to the cell are attached.

### Parallel Circuit

In Parallel Electrical Circuits, the voltage across each component is the same. And the total current is the sum of the currents passing through each element. If two or more elements are connected in parallel, they have the same potential difference (voltage) at their ends.

The potential differences between the components are the same in magnitude and also have the same polarity. The same voltage applies to all circuit components connected in parallel.

### Series Circuit

In Series Electrical Circuits, there is only one path for electron flow. The main disadvantage of a series circuit is that the entire circuit is open in an open circuit, and no current flows.

When two or more loads (light bulb, CFL, LED, etc.) are connected in series with each other, this is called a series circuit. If one load or lamp burns out in a series circuit, the remaining bulbs do not receive power and do not light.

### Linear Circuit

Fundamentally, the word ( linear ) literally means “along with a straight line. As the name suggests, a linear current means that the current flowing through the circuit is directly proportional to the applied voltage.

The line element has a voltage proportional to its current. The resistor’s voltage is proportional to its current, and in the frequency domain, capacitors and inductors are also linear elements. This element has the property of superposition. The input-output is equivalent to the sum of the two smaller input data’s output signals, which are summed with the original input signal.

A linear circuit is an electrical circuit in which the circuit parameters (resistance, inductance, capacitance, waveform, frequency, etc.) are constant. In other words, a circuit whose parameters do not change concerning current and voltage is called a linear circuit.

We can say that a linear circuit is an electric circuit, and the parameters of this circuit are resistance, capacitance, inductance, etc… They are constant. Or we can say that the circuits’ settings do not change concerning the voltage, and the current is called a linear circuit.

#### Linear Element

The linear element has a voltage that is proportional to its current. A resistor’s voltage is proportional to it’s current, and in the frequency domain, capacitors and inductors are also linear elements.

This element has a property of superposition such that the output of input is equivalent to the sum of the outputs of two smaller inputs that sum to the original input.

Elements of linear circuits are those in which the resistance, capacitance, and inductance are independent of the current or voltage magnitude or direction. Linear algebraic or differential equations determine voltage and current.

#### Examples of Linear Circuits

Linear circuits are resistive and resistive circuits, inductance and inductive circuits, and a capacitor and Capacitive circuits. Linear circuits are amplifiers, differentiation, and integrators, linear electronic filters, or any circuitry consisting solely of ideal resistors, capacitors, inductors, operational amplifiers, and other “linear” circuit elements.

### Nonlinear Circuits

A nonlinear circuit is an electrical circuit. Electrical circuits, resistance, inductance, capacitance, waveform, frequency, etc., Not constant, called a nonlinear circuit. A nonlinear circuit is an electrical circuit whose parameters vary with current and voltage.

An electric circuit in which circuit parameters (resistance, inductance, capacitance, waveform, frequency, etc.) are not constant, is called a nonlinear circuit. For such devices, the graph between the voltage across them and the current through them is not a straight line.

#### Nonlinear Elements

Electrical devices (amplifiers, computers) are built of nonlinear components. Understanding the design of these devices requires a fundamental understanding of nonlinear circuits. Also, linear engineering is a nonlinear circuit.

There are no hard and fast rules for analyzing most nonlinear circuits – you must use your brain. However, to make your life easier, we will start with some methods for analyzing system nonlinear operational amplifier circuits. A nonlinear element (as opposed to a linear element) is an element whose resistance changes when the voltage across it changes. Elements that do not comply with Ohm’s laws are called nonlinear elements.

#### Examples Non-linear Element

Pn transition diode,

BJT, JFT, MOSFET

Semiconductors

Transistor

Transformer

Inductor,

Transformer

And the iron core inductor is called a nonlinear circuit.