IGBT Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor

IGBT Stand for

       Insulated

G        Gate

B       Bipolar

T       Transistor

The IGBT Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor, the most popular and widely used power electronic switching devices are BJT and MOSFET bipolar junction transistors. But both of these components had some limitations that should use in applications with very high current levels. So, we have moved another popular power electronic switching device called IGBT.

IGBT Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor

IGBT is a merger between BJT and MOSFET; these components have BJT input characteristics and MOSFET output characteristics. This article will introduce you to the basics of IGBT, how they work, and how to use them in your circuits.

An insulated-gate bipolar transistor is a three-pole semiconductor switching device that can use for fast switching with high efficiency in many electronic devices. These devices used primarily in amplifiers to switch/process complex wave signals with pulse width modulation (PWM).

IGBT runs with high current, which is typical for BJT but provides fast switching with more administration ease. IGBT can found in home appliances, electric cars, and digital stereo amplifiers. Multiple IGBT modules can support very high voltage and current.

Non-Punch-Throw (NPT) and Punch-Throw (PT) When the IGBT turned off, it exhibits a tail current because holes remain in the enlarged area. By adding the N + buffer layer to the so-called throw (PT) architecture, trapped holes are quickly absorbed. As such, PTIGBT switches faster but generally operates at a lower voltage than NPTIGBT.

The IGBT transistor carries the best components of these two transistors: high accuracy and high variable speed MOSFET and low saturation voltage of the bipolar transistor. It connects them to form a different machine transistor with a high-resolution compiler-emitter and practically no current screen.

Working of IGBT Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor

The IGBT Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor has three different terminals connected by three different metal layers. The metal layer of the gate terminal is separated from the semiconductors by a single layer of silicon dioxide (SIO2). IGBT consists of four layers of interconnected semiconductors.

The layer near the collector is the P + substrate layer, the top layer is the N layer, the other P layer is close to the emitter, and inside the Player, we have the N + layers. The relationship between the P + layer and the N layer is called the J2 connection, and the relationship between the N layer and the P layer is called the J1 connection.

The output current and voltage specifications are the same as the BJT, but the MOSFET voltage regulator simplifies the switching. Another significant advantage over standard MOSFET operation is the low state voltage. The resistance offered by the conductive channel in IGBT is very low, as a result of which the current values are much higher than those of the equivalent power Mossoft.

When the gate output is positive concerning the emitter and the threshold voltage is higher with the gate-emitter voltage than the IGBT, an N-channel formation is found in the P-regions, as is the case in Power Mozft. This N channel closes the n– region with the channel n + emitter regions. The movement of electrons in the N channel, and consequently, leads to a significant injection of holes from the P + substrate layer.

Characteristics of IGBT

The main advantages of using an insulated gate bipolar transistor compared to other transistor devices are its high voltage, low turn-on resistance, ease of operation, relatively high switching speeds, and a zero gate current, which makes it a good choice for moderate speed. For high voltage applications such as pulse width modulation (PWM), variable speed control. Switching power supplies or solar DC converters and frequency converters operating in the range of hundreds of kilohertz.

The term IGBT is a semiconductor device, and the abbreviation IGBT is an insulated gate bipolar transistor. It consists of three terminals with a wide range of bipolar current. IGBT developers believe that this is a voltage-controlled bipolar device with a CMOS input and a bipolar output. The IGBT design can be performed using both devices, such as BJT and MOSFET in monolithic form.

It combines the best properties of both to achieve optimal device performance. This device is used to increase performance, efficiency, and reduce audible noise. This also fixed in the circuits of the resonant mode converter. An optimized insulated gate bipolar transistor is available for both low conductivity and switching losses.

The graph is similar to BJT, except that the parameter that is kept constant for the chart is VGE, because IGBT is a voltage-controlled device, unlike BJT, a current-controlled device. When the device is in the OFF mode (VCE is positive and VGE <VGET), the reverse voltage is blocked by J2, and when it is biased in the opposite direction, i.e., VCE is negative, J1 blocks the voltage.

IGBT Circuit

The principle of operation and gate driving circuits for an insulated gate bipolar transistor is very similar to those of an N-channel MOSFET. The main difference is that the main conductive channel’s resistance when the current passes through the device in its “ON” state is much less in IGBT.

Because of this, current ratings are much higher compared to MOSFET equivalent power. IGBT a combination of a bipolar transient transistor (BJT) and a metal oxide field effect transistor (MOS-FET). It is a semiconductor device used to switch related applications.

Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) is mainly used in applications that consist of several devices that are parallel to each other, and in most cases can withstand very high currents that are in the range of hundreds of amperes together with a blocking voltage of 6000 V, which, in turn, is equal to hundreds of kilowatts, medium to high power is used, for example, induction heating.

IGBT is a combination of MOSFET and transistor. It has the advantages of both transistors and MOSFET. Mosfet has the benefits of high speed switching with high impedance, and on the other hand, BJT has the advantage of high gain and low saturation voltage, both of which are present in IGBT. IGBT is a voltage-controlled semiconductor that provides high collector-emitter current with almost zero gate current. Switching power supplies and control of the traction motor. Large insulated gate bipolar transistors.

IGBT vs Mosfet

IGBTs Were the preferred device for low-duty cycles, low frequency (<20 kHz), and small changes in line or load. They have also been the device of choice in applications where high voltages (> 1000 V), high junction temperatures (> 100 ° C), and high power output (> 5 kW) used.

MOSFETs preferred in those applications with the high-frequency operation (> 200 kHz), full line or load fluctuations, long duty cycles, low voltage applications (<250 V), and lower output power (<500 W).

 IGBTs High voltage and high power 600 ≥ and 10 A up to several MW, IGBT is also a preferred device. The thyristor family device also handles it.

MOSFETs For low voltages: <600 and up to tens of amperes, Mossoft is preferred: high frequency, small inductor / capsize, allows low cost.

IGBTs At high power, both voltage and current depend: with fast switching, Problems arise with EMI, parasites, DV / DT, DI / DT, and power shortage (due to high frequency). So slowly, the IGBT devices shut down better.

The MOSFETs are more sold/used and therefore cost less than IGBTs.MOSFETs can switch faster: preferably in low power and high frequency.

 MOSFETs The traditional motor drives exclusively use IGBT. Small BLDC and similar MOSFETs.

IGBTs Traditional SMPS modules use MOS transistors. IGBT is unlikely to be used.

IGBTs Improved manufacturing technology, resulting in lower costs.

MOSFETs Improved dynamic characteristics that require even less driver power.

IGBTs Lower thermal impedance, which, in turn, has significantly improved power.

 MOSFET Lower gate-drain feedback capacitance.

IGBTs Improved overload resistance.

MOSFETs Faster, smoother on / off signals.

IGBTs Lower input capacitance.

IGBTs  Lower on-state and switching losses.

MOSFETs Improved switching speeds.

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