Power Transformer

A Power Transformer is one of the types of transformer used to transfer Electrical Energy to any part of an electrical or electronic circuit between a generator and primary distribution circuits. A power transformer is used in an automated system to supply several AC voltage sources and corresponding current values from the general power supply. These transformers used to increase and decrease the voltage in distribution systems.


Power transformers convert electrical voltages to one level or another, usually transmitting voltage from high to low. This is achieved by the principle of magnetic induction between the coil to change the voltage and/or current level. Power transformers include a wide range of power transformers such as autotransformers, control transformers, current transformers, distribution transformers. General-purpose transformers, instrument transformers, isolated transformers, and voltage transformers.

These transformers are used in distribution systems to interface with increasing and decreasing voltages. Power transformers classified into three types depending on ranges. These are small power transformers, medium power transformers, and large power transformers. A power transformer used to increase or decrease the power source’s voltage level supplied to its primary winding.

Definition of Transformer

A transformer is a static electrical device that used to transfer energy from one circuit to another through electromagnetic induction, and without changing the frequency.

Transformers change voltage through electromagnetic induction. When magnetic field lines (flow lines) accumulate and collapse with changes in the current passing through the primary coil, the current is induced in another coil, called the secondary. Secondary voltage calculated by multiplying the primary voltage by the ratio of the number of turns in the secondary coil to the number of turns in the primary coil, a value called the ratio of turns.

Transformers, in the simplest way, can be described as things that transform. However, when we study it in more detail and connection with an electric current. It defined as a static device that changes the voltage level between the circuits. The transformer is a voltage control device that widely used to distribute and transmit AC power.

Power Transformer Design

Ppower Transformer Design

This section describes the design of power transformers used in load-derived topologies: direct converter, bridge, half-bridge, and the full-wave centre tap. Feedback transformers (actually coupled inductors) discussed in the next section. For more specialized applications, the principles discussed in this document will generally apply.

The frame of the power transformer made of metal, which laminated with sheets. It fixed to either the kernel type or the shell type. Transformer frames are wound and connected with conductors to make three 1-phase or one 3-phase transformer. This magnetic circuit, commonly known as a transformer cor, is designed to provide a flux path around the magnetic field necessary to create a voltage between the two directions.

Three 1-phase transformers require each bank to be isolated from the additional bank and offer continuity of service when one bank fails. One three-phase transformer, be it the case or core type, will not function even without one power supply. The three-phase transformer is inexpensive to manufacture, has a smaller footprint, and operates at a comparatively higher efficiency.

Power Transformer in Substation

Power Transformer in Substation

Power transformers are used in power transmission systems to step up or step down the system voltage. They increase the voltage generated by generators in a power plant to very high levels required for transmission. And then gradually reduce the transmission voltage in substations located in and around the load areas.

The substations designed to send and receive electricity. Thus, the transformer used for increasing and decreasing power, which c.an then used for supply purposes as per the substations’ requirements of the substations

Substation Image of a transformer is the heart of a substation. The transformer changes the incoming voltage and current and the outgoing voltage and current. Transformers of substations evaluated by their primary and secondary voltage and their bearing capacity.

For example, a typical substation transformer will have a rated power of 69-13 kV and 20 MVA. This means that the primary or high voltage is 69 kV, the secondary or low voltage is 13 kV, and the transformer has a rated power of 20 MVA or 20,000 kVA. Substation transformers, like most auxiliary transformers, consist of a core and coils immersed in oil in a steel tank. The oil serves as both an insulator and a coolant to maintain the actual temperature of the core.

Transformer In Substation

Transformer In Substation

The substation transformer designed for installation in three-phase transmission and distribution systems. Substation transformers designed for mounting indoors or outdoors on concrete sites, including high and low ones entering the operating rooms through closed sidewall bushing (single type transformer) or core or sidewall bushing (open type transformers).

Electricity is generated at some voltage level, transmitted at higher voltage levels due to certain advantages, and used at lower voltage levels. Therefore, to obtain power at the desired voltage levels, transformers are used in substations and generating stations.

The substation is part of the power generation, transmission, and distribution system. Substations change the voltage from low to high or vice versa or perform several other essential functions. A power substation is part of an electrical installation that includes a transmission or distribution line termination and switchgear and may include transformers.

The substation usually includes all the necessary control and safety equipment. Depending on the function performed, it can define as conversion, conversion, transmission, or distribution substation. As a result, a medium / low voltage transformer substation has a set of devices that supply the voltage supplied by the distribution network to a medium voltage (such as 20 kV) suitable for supplying low voltage lines. Designed to change values. (E.g. 400 V)

Although in a substation, transformers can include changing the voltage level between high transmission voltage and low distribution or connect two different transmission voltages. Substations may be owned and operated by electricity or owned by a large industrial or commercial user. In general, not visible at substations that rely on SCADA for remote monitoring and control.

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