Servo Motor, Application And Working Principle of Servo Motor

The Servo Motor is a simple electric motor driven by a servo mechanism. A servo motor is a moving or linear motion that allows precise control of the angular or linear joint with speed.

It includes a suitable motor connected to a sensor feedback position. Although the servo motor can rotate with considerable precision, this motor usually consists of a control circuit that responds to the motor’s current state. This response allows the servo motors to rotate very accurately.

If you want to rotate an object at certain angles or certain distances, you use a servo motor. It consists only of a simple motor passing through the servo mechanism. If it is a DC, it is called a DC servo motor, and an AC  is an AC servo motor.

It is one of the essential devices today, and most of the world’s population is unaware of its existence and importance.
Many companies rely on gray discs for reliability, accuracy, efficiency, size, and power.

A particular angle can rotate the output shaft of this motor.  It is not surprising that companies will continue to use these valuable devices in the coming years.

Servo Motor Working Mechanism

A servo motor has a closed-loop servomechanism system that uses position feedback to control its movement and closing position. Furthermore, the input for its control is an analog or digital signal representing the set position for the output shaft.

It is a closed-loop system that uses a positive feedback system to control shaft movement and closing position. In this case, the output signal is controlled by comparing the output signal and the reference input signal.

The reference input signal is compared to the reference output signal, and the third signal is generated from the feedback system. And this third signal acts as an input to control the device. This signal is present as long as the feedback signal is generated or there is a difference between the reference input signal and the reference output signal.

 Working Principle of Servo Motor

The servo motor operates on the PWM or pulse width modulation principle, which means that the pulse’s duration controls its angle of rotation applied to its control PIN. The consists of a DC or AC , a potentiometer, a gearbox, and a control circuit. First of all, we use a gearbox to reduce the rpm and increase the motor torque.

It is mainly depends on a pulse to latch a position when it receives one pulse and then rotates one relative pulse angle to realize an offset. The servo motor has a pulse sending function, so it will send a pulse of a relative amount when turning a certain angle. It then acts in conjunction with the servo motor, receiving a pulse or called a closed loop.

It is very precise in the position of control and speed. The potentiometer detects the mechanical position of the shaft. Hence, it connects to the motor shaft via gears. The shaft’s current position is converted into an electrical signal using a potentiometer and compared with the command input.

In the latest servo motors, electronic encoders or sensors determine the position of the shaft. We issue the command according to the position of the shaft. If the feedback signal differs from the specified input, the user is warned with an error signal. We amplify this error signal and use it as an input to the motor.

Hence the motor is spinning. And when the shaft reaches the desired position, the error signal becomes zero, and therefore the motor remains stationary while holding the position.

Application or Uses

The servo motor is most commonly used for devices in industrial applications such as automation. It is a self-contained electrical device that rotates machine parts with high efficiency.

Everyday use items use Servo Motors. Home electronics such as DVD and Blu-ray Disc players use servos to drive and pull back trays, appliances, toys, cars, planes, and more. But they are mostly used for industries. Important industries such as robotics, pharmaceuticals, food, and continuous production also use servo drives.

It is also best suited for electrical applications such as elevators, rudders, walking robots, and group jobs. It is used to start, move and stop cargo transport belts in several stages. For example, labeled, bottled, and packaged products. That is also used in the solar to check the position to set the table’s angle so that it can face the sun and the sun.


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