Stepper Motors are a type of motor used to control and provide torque for rotating shafts in any machine. Steppers differ from other motors in that they wound on a shaft with one continuous winding or the wound in such a way as to allow for a separation into a series of separate windings.
In the former case, the stepper motor’s winding is wound continuously. While in the latter, the number of windings per rotation is variable. Because of the variety of stepper motor applications and the variety of stepper motor parts used. Its repairing and maintenance are very important.
The most common type of stepper motor is the linear actuator capable of providing torque at high speed, with a short maximum voltage rating and a small footprint. Many steps per rotation are implemented within a stepper motor application. Each application will use a different current direction (usually clockwise or counter-clockwise) and use a different drive type (i.e., servo, DC motor, etc.).
Stepper motors can be serviced using a wide variety of techniques, including but not limited to, controlled winding, servo extension, belt drive, direct drive, etc. Many stepper motor applications will operate better if the drive type is changed from time to time.
Working Principle of Stepper Motor
To start a stepper motor application, you will need to determine the voltage reference point and then set the stepper driving circuit so that the input voltage is equal to or exceeds the reference point. Once this is done, you can build the stepper motor as described in the documentation that comes with your particular model.
This procedure is sometimes referred to as “sleep-driving” because it will not run unless the circuit is completely energized. In other words, when the circuit is not energized, the motor will continue to run in a condition where nothing is driving it.
One type of operation that is commonly known is alternate current (AC).
The alternate current is referred to as being “alternative”. Because it will alternate between being active (on or off) and being in a low-powered state (asleep or sleeping) at the same time.
The working principle behind this is that as the input voltage varies, either constant current (DC) or alternate current (AC). Which is essentially the same thing, will be required to maintain either constant current or alternating current (AC). When the circuit is built, you may note that the two power connections are labeled.
If you are unfamiliar with a stepper motor’s operation based upon alternate current, you must study the diagrams closely. The first step in understanding this is to understand how the magnets inside the stator are magnetized.
The alternating magnetic field generated by the magnet field in the stator will cause a change in the amount of magnetic field produced within the wire connected to the stator. For the stepper motor to operate properly, the alternating magnetic field produced must be translated into direct current (DC).