Switchgear is usually used in large organizations to safely clear all faults in the system to be efficiently completed. It is generally made of a heavy-duty and rugged steel or aluminum body and has a crucial switch for arming or disarming the system.
It protects equipment against short circuits and overload or overcurrents. They provide circuits and disconnected power supplies. Usually, one or more relays are provided with the switcher to be operated either manually or electronically. The relays initiate the closing and opening of various circuits and supply power to different components in the distribution system.
It connects directly to the power system by placing the power transformer in the low and high voltage planes. This device is activated to clear, check and save the error. These devices play an essential role in the power system to protect equipment against the high current.
Failure to do so may damage the device, and service may be interrupted. Hence, these devices are essential to protect equipment from damage such as transformer, generator, lines, etc.
While substation switchgear is located on both the high and low voltage sides of large power transformers.
In an electrical power distribution system, electrical switchgear consists of circuit breakers, fuses, or disconnectors used to control, isolate, and control electrical equipment in the distribution system.
The main components of electrical switchgear are relays, circuit breakers, and fuse holders. Relays generally used in larger systems where high load requirements are encountered. They have contacts that snap onto each other; therefore, there is no need for a complete, submersible spring arrangement. However, smaller systems may require some form of fuses in the case of overload conditions.
Types of Switchgears
Types of electrical switchgear designed to remain in operation under low voltage conditions. Therefore they are often required in applications where power is not readily available. Some examples of such applications are remote control units, military and aircraft controls, telephone systems, and some forms of personal electronic equipment (PEC).
Switchgear is classified into three categories, One Low voltage switchgear (LV), The second Medium voltage switchgear (MV), and the third is High voltage switchgear (HV).
It should be noted that fuses should be carefully selected to match the correct circuit breaker rating. Fuses must be able to withstand high voltage and constant current requirements.
The most common styles are single-sided and double-sided. Single-sided switchgear units are available in many different configurations. These units have one side that plugs into the mains and the other side that plug into the wall receptacle. These units are best suited for power systems that do not need isolation for safety purposes.
Many states require contractors to complete formal training for the installation of electrical switchgear. The purpose of this training is to ensure that the installer possesses adequate knowledge about the safe installation process.
Contractors may be required to complete a formal training program to obtain a certificate stating that they know necessary to install the system correctly. States will also require contractors to take an examination that tests their understanding of the installation process.
Contractors who complete the examination and training program will then be eligible to work on residential and commercial buildings that require electrical switchgear.
Working Principle OF Switchgear
The working principle of the switchgear is a complicated one. The basic idea behind it is that the wires attached to a circuit should transfer current to another circuit even if they are attached to different terminals. To do this, the wires need to be insulated from each other so that there is a gap between them. If they are insulated enough, the current that the circuit will require passing through will not be affected by the gaps.
To start switchgear, there is a small clip-on device called the switchgear arm. It has a threaded end and a similar one with a similar end attached to the body of the switchgear. These two parts are usually made out of brass, although some switchgear is made from steel or other metals.
These switchgear arms are attached to a wooden switch, inserted into a hole drilled in the center of the switchgear arm. The wooden switchgear is then fastened to the arm using clips.
Now, when the switchgear arm is fastened into the switch, the wires from the different circuits can be attached to the arms and be moved to the desired positions. This whole contraption then fastened into a wooden frame, which is called the stand.
The stand’s legs should be fastened into the ground plane so that the electrical energy can flow into it directly. The working principle of the switchgear is such that the electrical energy does not flow directly out of the box but moves in a downstream direction. This means that the electricity will only flow backward and not forward, as most electrical appliances are standard.
Why use Switchgears
Switchgear is a protection device such as fuses, switches, relays, circuit breakers, etc. This device allows you to control devices such as electrical equipment, generators, distributors, transmission lines, etc. a short circuit occurs in the power system, a strong current arises. will flow through the devices.
So the equipment may be damaged and the operators may not work. To overcome this problem, it is used to detect a fault in the power system. Thus, it works to protect the equipment from damage. This increases the availability of the system by allowing more than one power supply to the load. It can open and close electrical circuits in both normal and abnormal conditions.
Although Under normal conditions, it can manually ensure safety as well as correct power use. It is used to switch, control and protect devices as well as circuits. While it is concerned with switching and disconnecting currents under various operating conditions such as normal or abnormal.
It is a general term used to refer to a series of switches, circuit breakers, fuses, etc., used to control, regulate, and switch circuits in an electrical system. By controlling the circuit, the switching device protects and isolates electrical equipment from the power source and allows testing, maintenance, and troubleshooting.