SCADA (supervisory control and data collection) is a management automation system. SCADA is a type of process control system that uses computers. SCADA used in industries, oil, Electrical girds. Powerhouses and gas, energy, and much more. The System has a centralized system that monitors and controls entire facilities, from an industrial enterprise to a complex enterprise.
SCADA systems used to monitor and control equipment in the production process, which includes production, production, development, and manufacturing. Network data transfer and graphical human-machine interfaces (HMIs) to provide high-level process control and control. SCADA systems interact with other devices, such as programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and PID controllers, to communicate with industrial processes and equipment.
SCADA is a type of process control software application. SCADA is a central control system that consists of the network interfaces of controllers, input/output, communication equipment, and software.SCADA systems used to monitor and control equipment in the production process, which includes production, production, development, and manufacturing. Infrastructure processes include gas and oil distribution, Electric power plants, distribution of electric networks. Utilities include transport systems and airports system also.
SCADA stands for
SCADA System Working
The SCADA system works by working with signals transmitted through channels to provide the user with remote control of any equipment in the System. It also implements a distributed tag database that contains tags or points throughout the plant.
Although these points represent a single input or output value monitored or monitored by SCADA is a type of process control software application. SCADA systems include hardware and software components. The hardware collects and transfers data to a computer on which SCADA software installed.
Then the computer processes this data and presents it on time. SCADA also records and writes all events to a file stored on the hard disk, or sends them to the printer. SCADA applications warn when conditions become hazardous with audible signals. Is a central control system that consists of the network interfaces of controllers, input/output, communication equipment, and software.
Infrastructure processes include gas and oil distribution, Electric power plants, distribution of electric networks. Utilities include transport systems, and airports system also.is a type of process control software application. SCADA is a central control system that consists of the network interfaces of controllers, input/output, communication equipment, and software.
SCADA systems used to monitor and control equipment in the production process, which includes production, production, development, and manufacturing. Infrastructure processes include gas and oil distribution, Electric power plants, distribution of electric networks.
Utilities include transport systems and airports system also—the System in a centralized control room. Points scored in the distributed database as value-time pairs. SCADA system often configured to receive metadata, such as programmable logic controller (PLC) register paths and alarm statistics.
1: Human Machine Interface (HMI)2: Supervisory System
3: Remote Terminal Units (RTUs)
4: Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs)
5: Communication infrastructures
1: Human Machine Interface (HMI)
In big industrial structures, it is practically impossible to control individual parts of the system, since, in most installations, these parts are often located very far from each other. Thus, there is a need to monitor and control them using SCADA and HMI. HMI is only part of the SCADA system. Without SCADA, HMI would be practically useless.
HMI stands for Human Machine Interface. This is a portable display device that graphically displays the status of the PLC and the process. The operator can also give PLC commands and view the process output in the HMI.
In addition to the graphical interface, some HMIs have data logging options. Process reports, Process trends (graphs), Process signals, and Events can also be viewed in the HMI. HMI systems are usually standalone. Its hardware can be a small graphical interface or a PC.
HMI in the manufacturing industry is a graphical user interface (GUI) display on a computer screen faced by machine operators and users who need operating machine data. In HMI, there are various types of visualizations for monitoring and machine data connected online and in real-time. The HMI will describe the machine’s state in the form of a map of the production machine, which it can see in which part of the machine works.
The HMI also has a visualization of the machine controller in the form of buttons, sliders, etc., which can be used to accurately control the machine. Besides, the HMI also displays an alarm in case of danger in the System. The HMI also displays summary data on the operation of the device, including graphically.
2: Supervisory System
Supervisory System often takes one of two forms. In one case, the controlled machine or process continues autonomously. From time to time, he is observed by a person who intervenes to change the control algorithm somehow when he considers it necessary. On the other hand, the process accepts the instruction, executes it autonomously, reports the results, and expects further commands.
With manual control, the operator interacts directly with the controlled process or task using switches, levers, screws, valves, etc. To control the drives. This concept laid in the earliest machines that sought to expand the physical capabilities of man.
On the contrary, with automatic control, the machine adapts to changing circumstances and makes decisions to achieve some goal, which can be as simple as turning the heating system on and off to maintain the room temperature in a given range.
3: Remote Terminal Units (RTUs)
RTU means Remote Terminal, also called Remote Telemetry Module or Remote Telecontrol. RTU is a microprocessor-based electronic device, which is used in industrial control systems ICS to connect various equipment to distributed control systems DCS or supervisory control and data acquisition SCADA. RTU also called remote telemetry units or remote tell control units.
It transmits sensor data from the input streams in the control loops to the output stream for transmission to central control in ICS. RTUs automatically negotiate connections with local or remote control.
It’s used to convert electronic signals received (or required) from field devices into (or from) a communication protocol that used to transmit data over a network. RTUs are displayed in the field in the form of a block in a switchboard with electric signal wires going to the field instrumentation and a cable connected to the communication channel interface, such as a telephone cable, field bus, and radio (etc.).
4: Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC)
A programmable logic controller (PLC), also called a programmable controller. A PLC is a computer specially designed for reliable operation in harsh industrial environments such as extreme temperatures, wet, dry, and dusty conditions. It used to automate production processes, such as the assembly line of an ore processing plant or treatment plant.
The PLC CPU stores and processes the program data, but input and output modules connect the PLC to the machine’s rest. These Inputs / Output modules provide information for the CPU and trigger specific results. Input/output can be analog and digital. Input devices can include sensors, switches, and meters, and outputs can include relays, indicators, valves, and actuators. Users can mix and match the PLC I / O to get the right configuration for their application.
In addition to PLC input and output devices, connection to other types of systems may also be required; For example, users may want to export application data recorded by the PLC to a supervisory control and data acquisition SCADA, a system that monitors several connected devices. PLCs can communicate with these other systems.
5: Communication infrastructures
The communications infrastructure in basic terms includes technologies, products, and network connections that transmit messages over long distances. Communication infrastructure refers to the backbone of a communication system on which various broadcast and telecommunication services operate.
SCADA systems include hardware and software components. The hardware collects and transfers data to a computer on which SCADA software installed. Then the computer processes this data and presents it on time.
This can make from copper cable, fiber optic, or wireless technologies using a range of radio frequencies such as a microwave and satellite. Infrastructure is the main component that connects manufacturing processes, such as voice, data, and audiovisual services, with downstream consumers.
In today’s communications infrastructure, almost every transmission uses optical communications, at least in part, on its path. Local Area Networks LANs, access networks, cellular transport networks, and basic transport systems almost all use fiber optics.
Examples of Communication infrastructures
UHF and VHF Voice Radio
SCADA Security is the practice of protecting supervisory control and data acquisition networks (SCADA), the overall structure of control systems used in industrial operations. SCADA Systems Security is a broad term used to describe the protection of SCADA networks.
SCADA security has changed significantly in recent years. Before computers appeared, the only way to monitor a SCADA network was to deploy several people at each station to report each System’s status. At more busy stations, technical specialists consistently worked for manual network control and telephone communication.
These networks consist of computer hardware and applications and are used to control and monitor the vital infrastructure in the countries where they operate. SCADA Security is a term that describes measures taken to protect SCADA networks and discuss vulnerabilities.
Only after the advent of a local area network (LAN) and improvements in the miniaturization of the System did we begin to see advances in SCADA development, such as a distributed SCADA network. Then came the network systems to exchange data through the wide-area network WAN and connect many other components.
SCADA Cyber Security
Like any other network, these networks are at risk of cyber attacks that can quickly and with severe consequences, destroy any part of the country’s critical infrastructure if proper security not provided. Capital spending is another crucial issue. SCADA systems can cost an organization from tens of thousands to millions of dollars.
With the growing threat of cyber attacks and cyber warfare, some networks’ security is under the scrutiny of those who hope to protect them. The increasing incidents of SCADA network attacks have led to an intensified discussion of this topic.
For these reasons, organizations must implement reliable SCADA security measures to protect their infrastructure and millions of people who suffer from disruptions caused by an external attack or internal error.
SCADA Network Security
Everyone, from large companies to local and federal governments, is vulnerable to these SCADA security threats. Schneider Electric is a multinational corporation specializing in the automation of energy management and SCADA networks.
According to a recently published article on DarkReading.com, Schneider hacked, and digital attackers gained control of the company’s emergency shutdown system and used it to target one of Schneider’s customers.
These threats can have far-reaching consequences for both the economy and society. Specific threats to SCADA networks include the following.
Individuals or groups with malicious intent can bring the SCADA network to its knees. By gaining access to SCADA’s key components, intentional, intruders, or groups that seek to gain access to critical elements in SCADA networks. These hackers can also be part of a government plan as a form of cyber warfare.
Internal threats can be as destructive as external threats. Employees are a common cause of SCADA network problems. Either intentionally (due to internal problems with the work), or, more often, due to operator error. Most of the problems in this category are due to poor preparation or carelessness. SCADA security eliminates these risks.
Malicious software, including viruses, spyware, and ransomware, can be dangerous for SCADA systems. Malicious software includes viruses, spyware, and other programs that not necessarily designed for SCADA networks. Although they may not explicitly be designed for these networks, malware continues to pose a threat to essential infrastructure operations. This includes SCADA mobile applications used to monitor and manage SCADA systems.